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Memory loss that disrupts daily life may be a symptom of Alzheimer's or other dementia. Alzheimer's is a brain disease that causes a slow decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills. Forgetfulness meaning you forget everything; losing track of important dates, names, and events; forgetting big things and events in life; asking repeatedly for the same information again and again etc. are some of the symptoms that cause Alzheimer's. Diagnosis of symptoms includes tests to assess memory impairment and other thinking skills, judge functional abilities, and identify behavior changes. Other diagnostic tests include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computerized Tomography (CT), and Positron Emission tomography (PET). This session discusses more about Alzheimer's Diagnosis and Symptoms
Alzheimer's clinical trials help patients themselves a lot in finding cure for their disease. It helps patients receive regular monitoring by medical professionals; testing new treatments that might work better than those currently available. However, single clinical trials and studies generally do not have miraculous results, and participants may not benefit directly. With a complex disease like Alzheimer’s, it is unlikely that one drug will cure or prevent the disease. Yet clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease are must as better preventive methods are applied in such clinical trials. Without clinical trials and research studies and without human volunteers it is near impossible to find cure for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This session discusses more about Alzheimer's clinical trials.
Alzheimer's disease is pathologically characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein deposits contributing to senile plaques. Over the last two decades, advances in the field of pathogenesis have inspired the researchers for the investigation of novel pharmacological therapeutics centered more towards the pathophysiological events of the disease. While the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease are recognized but the intricacies of the mechanism have not been clearly defined. This lack of understanding regarding the pathogenic process may be the likely reason for the non-availability of effective treatment which can prevent onset and progression of the disease. Owing to the important progress in the field of pathophysiology in the last couple of years, new therapeutic targets are available that should render the underlying disease process to be tackled directly. This session discusses more about Alzheimer's pathophysiology.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is a type of dementia caused by changes in behavior, cognition and movement. Memory loss is not always present early. Dementia steadily worsens over time and the condition is diagnosed when cognitive decline interferes with normal daily functioning. A core feature is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), in which individuals lose normal muscle paralysis during REM sleep, and act out their dreams. RBD may appear years or decades before other symptoms. Other frequent symptoms include visual hallucinations; marked fluctuations in attention or alertness; and slowness of movement, trouble in walking, or rigidity. The autonomic nervous system is usually affected, resulting in changes in blood pressure, heart and gastrointestinal function, with constipation as a common symptom. Mood changes such as depression and apathy are common. This session further discusses more about Dementia with Lewy bodies.
The frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is of six types involving the frontal or temporal lobes such as behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, nonfluent agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, and frontotemporal dementia associated with motor neuron disease. One variant is the clinical presentation of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, which is characterized by progressive neuronal loss predominantly involving the frontal or temporal lobes, and typical loss of over 70% of spindle neurons, while other neuron types remain intact. Common signs and symptoms include significant changes in social and personal behavior, apathy, blunting of emotions, and deficits in both expressive and receptive language. There is no cure for FTD at present but treatments do help alleviate symptoms. This session discusses more about frontotemporal dementia.
Mixed dementia is common among the people suffering with dementia. Mixed dementia is nothing but combination of two or more types of dementia. A number of combinations are possible. For example, some people have both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Some studies indicate that mixed dementia is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. For example, autopsy studies looking at the brains of people who had dementia indicate that most people age 80 and older probably had mixed dementia caused by a combination of brain changes related to Alzheimer's disease, vascular disease-related processes, or another neurodegenerative condition. However, in a person with mixed dementia, it may not be clear exactly how many of a person's symptoms are due to Alzheimer's or another disease. This session discusses more about mixed dementia
Recent research findings have led to greater understanding of disease neurobiology in Alzheimer's disease and identification of unique targets for drug development. Current therapeutic options aim at transmitter targets secondary to Alzheimer's disease pathology. The next generation of drugs for Alzheimer's disease will alter the underlying disease course and or provide greater symptomatic benefit. Targets for these drugs were identified in the study of Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and include molecular events that result in the production and accumulation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) protein in neurotic plaques and hyper phosphorylation, condensation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). This session discusses more about therapeutic targets and mechanisms for treatment.
Natural remedies for Alzheimer's disease and dementia are dietary changes, lifestyle changes, exercises, yoga and meditation are some of the natural remedies to stop Alzheimer's disease from progressing to a worst form. The dietary supplements have shown some benefit in improving cognitive function and slowing the effects of dementia. Patients can take safe dosages or potential interactions with medications or other supplements. The new study used PET imaging to study the brain for changes and is the first to demonstrate how lifestyle factors directly influence abnormal proteins in people with subtle memory loss who have not yet been diagnosed with dementia. Healthy lifestyle factors also have been shown to be related to reduce shrinking of the brain and lower rates of atrophy in people with Alzheimer's. This session discusses more about Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia Natural Remedies.
Causes and Risk Factors of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia are old age, family history, hereditary causes, and other habits such as unhealthy lifestyle. It has been estimated that up to half of the cases of Alzheimer’s disease worldwide may be the result of seven key modifiable risk factors such as diabetes, head injuries, high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, depression, cognitive inactivity or Low levels of formal education, and lack of physical activity etc. This session discusses more about causes and risk factors causing Alzheimer's disease and dementias.
Dementia patients need assistance and full time care as much as drugs. Some common care practices in Dementia are assistance in food and fluid consumption, pain management, social engagement ensuring safety and security of Dementia patients, understanding patient's mood changes, particular behavior, speech problems and help in rectifying them. Main aim of care practices is to ensure cut in hospitalization and psychotropic drugs. Dementia patients need end of life care, so qualified nursing staff is needed. Few care practices which are used are indoor and outdoor activities, visual and audio stimulation, Art therapy. There should be a wide awareness among the public and societies about dementia care practices and awareness. This session discusses more about dementia care practice and awareness.
Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive, often dramatic and relatively selective decline in visual processing skills and other functions sub-served by parietal, occipital and occipital-temporal regions. Age of onset is typically between 50–65 years and the syndrome is associated with a variety of underlying pathologies. Posterior Cortical Atrophy has been recognized for more than two decades and yet the condition is relatively neglected by researchers. Patients often experience a considerable delay in the time to diagnosis owing to the young age of onset and unusual presenting symptoms. In addition the term PCA has been applied inconsistently, making it difficult to draw comparisons across studies. This session discusses more about Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA).
Dementia is a term used to describe severe changes in the brain that causes memory loss. Diseases associated with dementia are many, which include Alzheimer's disease - which is the most common type of dementia; Vascular dementia - which is caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain and can happen as you age and can be related to atherosclerotic disease or stroke; dementia with Lewy bodies - which is caused by protein deposits in nerve cells, this interrupts chemical messages in the brain and causes memory loss and disorientation; Frontotemporal dementia - affect the front and side parts of the brain, which are the areas that control language and behavior; Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and many others. This session discusses more about diseases associated with dementia.
Case reports of patients have full information of the disease, its symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up procedures. The case reports also contain a demographic profile of the patients describing unusual occurrences. These case reports report professional descriptions of diseases from a medical point of view and provides feedback on clinical practice guidelines that offers a framework for early signals of effectiveness, adverse events, and cost. These case reports are very useful for sharing, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes or for taking second opinion for the patient and family. Most case reports shed new light on findings, the possible pathogenesis of a disease or an adverse effect; or unique features of a disease and the kinds of therapeutic approaches. This session discusses more about case reports and how they are prepared and what they shed light on.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury having a wide range of symptoms and disabilities. Its effects are devastating on the person and his immediate family members. A brain injury is mild if loss of consciousness and/or confusion and disorientation is less than 30 minutes. MRI and CAT scans may not show anything, but the person may have cognitive problems like headache, mood swings and frustration, difficulty thinking, memory problems, and attention deficits. This session discusses various causes and symptoms, the diagnosis procedures and the treatment for traumatic brain injury.
Geriatrics is concerned with diseases such as cognitive disorders that occur in older people generally over the age of 60. Geriatrics focuses its attention on such cognitive disorders occurring in old age people over 60 years. Right diagnosis of cognitive disorders is made difficult due to the fact that similar symptoms are associated with old age disorders and diseases. Some of the most common symptoms leading to dementia are difficulty performing tasks, disorientation of time and place, poor judgment, personality changes; becoming irritable, fearful, suspicious, and tremors etc. This session focuses its attention on the studies of Geriatrics and the cognitive diseases and how best they could manage to cure these diseases.
Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) proteolysis is the crucial step in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) within the brain along with hyperphosphorylated and cleaved forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Genetic, biochemical, and behavioral research suggest that physiologic generation of the neurotoxic Aβ peptide from sequential Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) which is a single-pass transmembrane protein expressed at high levels in the brain. Why Aβ accumulates in the brains of elderly individuals is not clear but could relate to changes in Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) metabolism or Aβ elimination. Genetic studies and biochemical processes of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is going to be crucial in the development of therapeutic targets to treat Alzheimer’s disease.
Neuropharmacology deals with the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system and the neural mechanisms that impacts behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology, which are behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), the drug dependence and addiction affecting the human brain. While molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions with an overall goal of developing drugs having beneficial effects on neurological function. Both fields are interconnected with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, secondary messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This session discusses further about the research studies, and the drug development processes that treat many different neurological disorders, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, psychological disorders, addiction, and many others.